As a Doctor of Science (Dr. rer. nat., PD Dr. rer. nat.), Heiner Eckert has been teaching Chemistry as a private lecturer at Technische Universität München. Moreover, he works as an expert for scientific journals and acts as consultant and Vice President of a start-up company based in Hangzhou (China). Extracurricular studies have always been very important to him and a constant companion. The resulting experiences and insights are forming the basis of this website.


Heiner Eckert was born in Munich in 1946. He received his diploma in Chemistry from Technische Universität München (grade: excellent) in 1973 and his doctor’s degree (grade: »summa cum laude«) from the renowned  Prof. Ivar Ugi in 1976. He then founded his fine chemicals company Dr. Eckert GmbH which he left after 25 years in order to focus on scientific research. In 2005, he habilitated in Chemistry and received the »venia legendi« from Technische Universität München. There he worked as a private lecturer (PD) and Academic Director. His research interests encompass the development of methods in the field of peptide chemistry and natural substance synthesis, the chemistry of phthalocyanines, the deactivation of hazardous chemicals as well as the chemistry of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) with a focus on the radical simplification of chemical Synthesis (RSCS)[66]. Heiner Eckert has released 66 scientific publications and patents. He took part in many international conferences, giving own speeches. In 2013, Heiner Eckert agreed to become Vice President of a Biotech Startup in Hangzhou, China.

Awards and distinctions

Over decades Heiner Eckert has gained extensive knowledge regarding the chemistry of phthalocyanine. The Eckert hydrogenation catalysts are named after him.

Heiner Eckert succeeded in disarming phosgene, a dangerous gas, through his invention and his market launch of the stable solid triphosgene. This compound has now been used world-wide for the past 30 years. The work »Phosgenations, A Handbook« describes 70 substitutes for phosgene and is a standard reference in this area.

In Hangzhou (China) Heiner Eckert received the »Quianjiang Friendship Award 2015«, while in the Chinese province of Zhejiang he received the »West Lake Friendship Award 2015« for foreign experts.



Several synergistic effects arose among 15 projects each other. »Synergy center« is palladium phthalocyanine PdPc, on which different and highly selective reactions will proceed. Thus several synthesis techniques have been developed, as presented within the below chapters. These flow into the novel technology of Radical Simplification of Chemical Synthesis (RSCS) [66]. RSCS provides an extremely reducing of synthesis steps based on Multi Component Reactions (MCRs), even down to 1 step in the synthesis of completely derivated 1,4-oxazepin-2-ones from carbohydrates and amino acids by use of an Ugi-3CR, for example [65,66].

Selective hydrogenation reactions on metal phthalocyanines (MPc)
New auxiliary group ferrocenylmethyl group (Fem) for synthetical and analytical applications
New auxiliary group ferrocenylmethyl group (Fem) for synthetical and analytical applications
New building blocks Isocyanato-Isocyanides
Catalytic reaction control with palladium phthalocyanine PdPc generating 3 adjustable patterns
New protection group technique in peptide chemistry, based on TCBOC group
[1,3,6,7,8,10,11,12,15,16,17,18,19, 21,29,32]
Safety phosgenation reactions with Triphosgene
Multi-Function-Component-Reactions MFCRs for diversity oriented syntheses (DOS)
[53,54,58,63, 65].
[3,10,12,19,44,53,58,63, 65].
Radical Simplification of Chemical Synthesis technology
[ 65, 66].

Example for Radical Simplification of Chemical Synthesis (RSCS)
[66, therein ref. 172]


Please download the complete publication-list  here.

Heiner Eckert, “Radical and concerted Simplification of chemical Synthesis”, Wolff Verlag, Berlin 2017, ISBN: 978-3-941461-90-1.
Heiner Eckert, “Synergy Effects in the Chemical Synthesis and Extensions of Multicomponent Reactions (MCRs)—The Low Energy Way to Ultra-Short Syntheses of Tailor-Made Molecules”, Molecules 201722(3), 349; DOI: 10.3390/molecules22030349.
H. Eckert, L. Lei, “Why Wrong Data on Triphosgene Stability Circulated. Perception and Cognition, an addition to a previous article (1a)”, Chim. Oggi / Chem. Today, 2014, 32 (3), 32-33.
H. Eckert, „Diversity Oriented Syntheses of Conventional Heterocycles by Smart Multi Component Reactions (MCRs) of the Last Decade“, Molecules, 2012, 17, 1074-1102 (DOI: 10.3390/molecules17011074).
H. Eckert, „Phosgenation Reactions with Phosgene from Triphosgene“, Chim. Oggi / Chem. Today, 2011, 29 (6), 40-46.
H. Eckert, J. Auerweck, „Solvent-Free and Safe Process for the Quantitative Production of Phosgene from Triphosgene by Deactivated Imino-Based Catalysts“, Org. Process Res. Dev. (Safety of Chemical Processes 10), 2010, 14, 1501-1505 (DOI:10.1021/OP100239N).
H. Eckert, M. Koller, „Ten-membered Rings or Larger with One or More Sulfur Atoms“, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (CHEC III). Eds. A.R. Katritzky, C.A. Ramsden, E.F.V.  Scriven, R.J.K. Taylor, Elsevier, Oxford, 2008, vol. 14, p. 751-801.
H. Eckert, „Eight-membered Rings with One Sulfur Atom“, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (CHEC III). Eds. A.R. Katritzky, C.A. Ramsden, E.F.V. Scriven, R.J.K. Taylor, Elsevier, Oxford, 2008, vol. 14, p. 89-98.
H. Eckert, „From Multi-Component-Reactions (MCRs) towards Multi-Function-Component-Reactions (MFCRs)“, Heterocycles, 2007, 73, 149-158.
H. Eckert, „Triphosgen – eine Erfolgsgeschichte. Ein Forschungsprodukt erobert den Weltmarkt”, TUM-Mitteilungen, 2006, (3), 68-69.
H. Eckert, N. Drefs, “Reducing the Risk”, Chemanager, 2006, (3), 10.
H. Eckert, „Functions Containing a Carbonyl Group and at least One Chalcogen (but No Halogen)“, in: Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations II (COFGT II). Eds. A.R. Katritzky, R.J.K. Taylor; Elsevier, Oxford, 2005, vol. 6, p. 429-452.
H. Eckert, „Old and Novel Reagents and Reactions – Results from Methods Development“, Habilitationschrift, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 2005.
L. Cotarca, H. Eckert, „Phosgenations – A Handbook“, WILEY-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, New York, 2004, 656 pp.
H. Eckert, „Eckert Hydrogenation Catalysts“, in: A. Hassner, C. Stumer, „Organic Syntheses Based on Name Reactions“ (Tetrahedron Organic Chemistry Series, Vol. 22), Pergamon (Elsevier Science), Amsterdam, New York, 2002, p. 97.
H. Eckert, to Dr. Eckert GmbH, „Isocyanato Isocyano Compounds“, European Appl. EP 1123293 (EP 1300393), 2001 (2003), Chem. Abstr. 2003, 138, 303938.
H. Eckert, B. Gruber, to Dr. Eckert GmbH, „Method and Device for Safe Preparation of Laboratory Gases in Sealed Storage Container and Reactor“, German Offen. DE 19860496, 1999, Chem. Abstr., 1999, 131, 288466.
H. Eckert, B. Gruber, J. Auerweck, to Dr. Eckert GmbH, „Metal Halide Catalysts for Production of Carbonyl Dichloride from Chlorine and Carbon Monoxide“, German Offen. DE 19916856, 1999, Chem. Abstr., 1999, 131, 216185.
H. Eckert, B. Gruber, N. Dirsch, to Dr. Eckert GmbH, „Deactivated Amine Catalysts for Manufacture of Phosgene from Diphosgene and Triphosgene“, German Patent DE 19740577, 1999, Chem. Abstr. 1999, 130, 211406, European Patent EP 1017623, 2002, US Patent US 6399822, 2002, Japanese Patent JP 2001516692, 2001, PCT WO 9914159, 1999.
H. Eckert, Recension: „Chemistry and Technology of Isocyanates“ by H. Ulrich, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1997, 36, 1909.
M. Koller, H. Eckert, „Derivatization of Peptides for their Determination by Chromtographic Methods“, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1997, 352, 31-59.
H. Eckert, „Das Genie in Wissenschaft und Kunst“, in: Ugi-Symposium – Multikomponenten-Reaktionen. Ed. H. Eckert; Lehrstuhl I des Instituts fuer Organische Chemie und Biochemie der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Garching, 1997, S.121-143.
H. Eckert, „Ugi-Symposium – Multikomponenten-Reaktionen“ (22.9.1995); Lehrstuhl I des Instituts fuer Organische Chemie und Biochemie der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Garching, 1997.
H. Eckert, A. Nestl, „Functions Containing a Carbonyl Group and at least One Chalcogen (but No Halogen)“, in: Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations. Eds. A.R. Katritzky, O. Meth-Cohn, C.W. Rees; Pergamon, Oxford, 1995, vol. 6, p. 459-498.
H. Eckert, A. Nestl, I. Ugi, „o-Tolyl Isocyanide“, in: Encyclopedia of Reagents in Organic Synthesis. Ed. L.A.Paquette; Wiley, New York, 1995, vol. 7, 4964.
H. Eckert, A. Nestl, I. Ugi, „Phenyl Isocyanide“, in: Encyclopedia of Reagents in Organic Synthesis. Ed. L.A.Paquette; Wiley, New York, 1995, vol. 6, 3991.
H. Eckert, A. Nestl, I. Ugi, „Methyl Isocyanide“, in: Encyclopedia of Reagents in Organic Synthesis. Ed. L.A. Paquette; Wiley, New York, 1995, vol. 5, 3519.
H. Eckert, A. Nestl, I. Ugi, „tert.-Butyl Isocyanide“, in: Encyclopedia of Reagents in Organic Synthesis. Ed. L.A. Paquette; Wiley, New York, 1995, vol. 2, 893.
H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „The Role of Isocyanides in the Synthesis of ß-Lactam Antibiotics and Related Compounds“, in: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Herausg. Atta-ur-Rahman Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, 1993, S. 113-143.
H. Eckert, B. Forster, C. Seidel, „Vollstaendige Maskierung der -Gly-Bindungen mit dem stark lipophilen und chromophoren Ferrocenylmethyl-[Fem]-Rest bei Peptidsynthesen von Hexaglycin und Leu-Enkephalin“, Z. Naturforsch. 1991, 46b, 339-352.
H. Eckert, M. Koller, „Derivatizing Reagents Based on Ferrocene for HPLC-ECD Determination of Peptides and Proteins“, J. Liq. Chromatogr. 1990, 13, 3399-3414.
H. Eckert, M. Koller, „Derivatisierungsreagenzien fuer die HPLC-ECD-Analyse von Peptiden und Proteinen auf Ferrocenbasis: Synthese und Umsetzung mit H-Phe-OtBu als Eignungstest“, Z. Naturforsch. 1990, 45b, 1709-1714.
H. Eckert, „Aeußerst selektive und schonende Abspaltung von ß-Halogenalkyl-Gruppen mittels Cobalt(I)phthalocyanin-anion bei Semi-synthesen von ß-Lactam- Antibiotica“, Z. Naturforsch. 1990, 45b, 1715-1724.
H. Eckert, B. Forster, „Triphosgene, a Crystalline Phosgene Substitute“, Angew. Chem. 1987, 99, 922-923, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1987, 26, 894-895.
H. Eckert (speaker), B. Forster, Y. Kiesel, C. Seidel, „Peptide Syntheses Using the Ferrocenylmethyl [Fem] Group“, in: Proceedings of Muenchen-Shanghai Symposium on Peptide and Protein Chemistry, Ringberg/Tegernsee, June 9-10, 1986, p. 23-28.
H. Eckert, C. Seidel, „Der Ferrocenylmethyl-[Fem]-Rest als hochlipophile und chromophore Gruppe zur Maskierung von Peptidbindungen“, Angew. Chem. 1986, 98, 168-170, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1986, 25, 159-160.
H. Eckert (speaker), Y. Kiesel, C. Seidel, C. Kaulberg, H. Brinkmann, „New Strategy for Peptide Synthesis Using Highly Lipophilic and Chromophoric Groups. Synthesis of Octapetide Sequence [24-31] H-Lys-Asn- Ala-Tyr-Lys-Lys-Gly-Glu-OH of Human ß-Endorphin“, in: Chemistry of Peptides and Proteins, Vol. 3 (Proceedings of the 5th USSR-FRG Symposium on Chemistry of Peptides and Proteins, Odessa, USSR, May 16-21, 1985), Herausg. W. Voelter, E. Bayer, Y.A. Ovchinnikov, T. Ivanov, de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 1986, S. 19-28.
H. Eckert (speaker), C. Seidel, „New Strategy in Peptide Synthesis. The Ferrocenylmethyl [Fem] Residue as Highly Lipophilic and Chromophoric Group for the Peptide Bond Moiety“, in: Proceedings of the 1st German-Japanese Symposium on Peptide Chemistry (Akabori Conference), Grainau/ Eibsee, June 12-13, 1985, S. 16-19.
H. Eckert, „Verwendung von Kohlensaeure-bis-trichlormethylester als Proreagens fuer Phosgen“, German Offen. DE 3440141, 1984, Chem. Abstr. 1987, 106, 4294.
H. Eckert, G. Fabry, Y. Kiesel, G. Raudaschl, C. Seidel, „Reaktionssteuerung durch Katalysatoren mit einstellbarer Spezifität: Stabiles Palladium-phthalocyanin als Hydrierkatalysator mit drei Katalysemustern“, Angew. Chem. 1983, 95, 894-895, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1983, 22, 881-882, Angew. Chem. Suppl. 1983, 1291-1314.
H.A. Kellner, R.G.K. Schneiderwind, H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „Bis(2,2,2-trichlor-1,1-dimethylethyl) monochlor-phosphat, ein selektives Reagens fuer Phosphorylierung und Schutz der 5‘-OH-Gruppe von Nucleosid-Derivaten“, Angew. Chem. 1981, 93, 581-582, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1981, 20, 577-578.
H. Eckert, „Verfahren zur Reduktion von reduzierbaren Gruppen und dessen Anwendung“, German Patent DE 3121478, 1981, Chem. Abstr. 1983, 99, 21589.
H. Eckert, Y. Kiesel, „Stabile Metall-phthalocyanine als vergiftungsresistente Katalysatoren in der homogenen Katalyse: Reduktion organischer Verbindungen mit NaBH4“, Angew. Chem. 1981, 93, 477-479, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1981, 20, 473-475.
H. Eckert, „Selektive Reduktion der Nitro- zur Aminogruppe durch das Cobalt(I)- phthalocyanin-Anion; Synthese von N-Heterocyclen und Alkaloiden“, Angew. Chem. 1981, 93, 216-218, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1981, 20, 208-210.
H.Eckert, „Verfahren zur Reduktion von reduzierbaren Gruppen und dessen Anwendung“, German Patent DE 3012674, 1980, Chem. Abstr. 1982, 96, 19268.
H. Eckert, Y. Kiesel, „Redox-Katalysator Kobalt-phthalocyanin: Deblockierung von 2-Halogenalkyl- Verbindungen“, Synthesis 1980, 947-949.
H. Eckert, A. Schier, „Vitamin-B12-Modell Cobalt(I)-phthalocyanin-Anion: Selektivität bei Reaktionen mit Elektrophilen“, Angew. Chem. 1979, 91, 841-842, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1979, 18, 794-796.
H. Eckert, W. Breuer, J. Geller, I. Lagerlund, M. Listl, D. Marquarding, S. Stueber, I. Ugi, S. Zahr, H.v.Zychlinski, „New Methods in Peptide Synthesis, Based on Supernucleophiles“, Pure Appl. Chem. 1979, 51, 1219-1233.
H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „Spaltung ß-halogenierter Urethane mit Kobalt(I)-phthalocyanin; eine neue Schutzgruppentechnik fuer Peptid-Synthesen“, Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1979, 278-295.
H. Eckert (speaker), M. Listl, I. Ugi, „2,2,2-Trichloro-tert.-butyloxycarbonyl [TCBOC], a Protection Group Stable towards Acids and Bases and Selectively Cleavable under Mild Conditions“, in: Proceedings of the 2nd FRG-USSR Symposium on Chemistry of Peptides and Proteins, Grainau/ Eibsee, May 24-27, 1978, S. 146-148.
H. Eckert, M. Listl, I. Ugi, „Der 2,2,2-Trichlor-tert.-butyloxycarbonyl-[TCBOC]-Rest, eine säure- und basenstabile, schonend abspaltbare Schutzgruppe“, Angew. Chem. 1978, 90, 388-389, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1978, 17, 361-362.
I. Ugi, H. Eckert, to Bayer AG, „Verfahren zum Schutz funktioneller Gruppen“, German Offen. DE 2747724, 1977, Chem. Abstr. 1979, 91, 91954.
H. Eckert, D. Lenoir, I. Ugi, „Stabile tertiaere und sekundaere Cobaloxime. Reaktion von Cobaloxim(I) mit Bromiden aus der Reihe des Adamantans und Norbornans“, J. Organomet. Chem. 1977, 141, C23-C27.
H. Eckert, I. Lagerlund, I. Ugi, „ß-Haloalkyl Groups as Functional Protection in Peptide Synthesis. A Kinetic Study of the Reaction of the Cobalt-(I)-phthalocyanine Anion with Organic Halides“, Tetrahedron 1977, 33, 2243-2247.
I. Ugi, G. Eberle, H. Eckert, I. Lagerlund, D. Marquarding, G. Skorna, R. Urban, L. Wackerle, H. v.Zychlinski, „The Present Status of Peptide Synthesis by Four-Component Condensation and Related Chemistry“, in: Peptides, Proceedings of the 5th American Peptide Symposium, Herausg. M. Goodman, J. Meienhofer, Halsted Press, Wiley + Sons, New York, 1977, p. 484-487.
H. Eckert, „Einfuehrung von schonend abspaltbaren Carboxyl-Schutzgruppen mittels der Passerini-Reaktion“, Synthesis 1977, 332-334.
I. Ugi, H. Aigner, B. Beijer, D. Ben-Efraim, H. Burghard, P. Bukall, G. Eberle, H. Eckert, D. Marquarding, D. Rehn, R. Urban, L. Wackerle, H. v. Zychlinsky, „New Methods for Peptide Synthesis wit Organometallic Reagents and Isocyanides“, in: Peptides 1976, Proceedings of the 14th European Peptide Symposium Wepion, Belgium, April 11-17 (1976), Herausg. A. Loffet Editions de L Universite Bruxelles 1976, S. 159-181.
H. Eckert, „Beitraege zur Chemie Supernukleophiler Kobalt(I)-Komplexe und eine Neue Schutzgruppentechník für die Synthese von Peptiden und ß-Lactam-Antibiotika auf ihrer Grundlage“, Dissertation, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 1976.
H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „Neue Schutzgruppentechnik – Spaltung von ß-Halogenalkyl-Estern mit supernukleophilem Cobalt(I)phthalocyanin“, Angew. Chem. 1976, 88, 717-718, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1976, 15, 681.
H. Eckert, H.-J. Kabbe, I. Ugi, to Bayer AG, „Verfahren zum Schutz reaktionsfaehiger Amino-, Hydroxyl- und /oder Carboxyl-gruppen“, German Patent DE 2619247, 1976, Chem. Abstr. 1978, 88, 61674.
H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „Die reduktive Fragmentierung von 2-Benzoyloxyethyl-kobalt- (III)-phthalocyanin als Modellreaktion für eine neue Schutzgruppentechnik bei Peptidsynthesen“, J. Organomet. Chem. 1976, 118, C59-C61.
H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „Ligandenfeldbedingte grundlegende Unterschiede im Reaktionsverhalten von Kobalt(I)-Supernukleophilen beim Umsetzen mit N-Phenyl-O-[ß-halogenethyl]- urethan bzw. dessen N-Methylderivat“, J. Organomet. Chem. 1976, 118, C55-C58.
H. Seidler, K. Wunderlich, H. Eckert, to Bayer AG, „Verfahren zur Herstellung von Komplexverbindungen der Kobaltphthalocyanin-Reihe“, German Offen. DE 2555243, 1975, Chem. Abstr. 1977, 87, 153424.
I. Ugi, A. Arora, H. Burghard, G. Eberle, H. Eckert, G. George, G. Gokel, H. Herlinger, E. v.Hinrichs, P. Hoffmann, H. Kleimann, H. Klusacek, H.L. Lam, D. Marquarding, H.S. Nah, K. Offermann, D. Rehn, S. Stüber, M. Tamasi, R. Urban, L. Wackerle, S. Zahr. H. v.Zychlinski, „Four Component Condensation (4CC), a Potential Alternative to Conventional Peptide Synthesis – the Solution of the Stereoselectivity and Auxiliary Group Removal Problems“, in: Peptides 1974, Herausg. Y. Wolman J. Wiley + Sons, Israel University Press, Jerusalem, 1975, S. 71-92.
H. Eckert, I. Ugi, „Kobalt(I)phthalocyanin-Salze, in neutralem Medium stabile supernucleophile Vitamin-B12-Modellsubstanzen“, Angew. Chem. 1975, 87, 847, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1975, 14, 825-826.
H. Eckert, G.N. Schrauzer, I. Ugi, „Der 2-Chlorethoxycarbonylrest als N-terminale, mit Supernukleophilen selektiv abspaltbare Schutzgruppe von Aminosaeuren“, Tetrahedron, 1975, 31,1399-1401.